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Research Reveals How Green Tea Fights Cancer

Research Reveals How Green Tea Fights Cancer

Those polyphenols in green tea are key to preventing breast cancer and prostate cancer

The miracle that is green tea has long been promoted for its anti-cancer properties; now, researchers say they may know the secret behind its cancer-kicking abilities.

In the latest study, researchers gave participants with breast cancer a green tea extract or a placebo; they found after two months that those given the green tea extract had significantly lower tumor growth than those given the placebo. And in a prostate cancer study, men given six cups of brewed green tea had lower levels of the antigen associated with prostate tumor growth. (However, it did not inhibit tumor growth.)

So how does green tea slow down tumor growth? It's thanks to the polyphenols in green tea, the antioxidants that help protect cells from damage. Said the researcher of the prostate cancer study, Susanne M. Henning, to WebMD, the polyphenols reached the prostate tissue and helped decrease inflammation — which is linked to cancer growth.

While the researchers say it's too early to declare tea the miracle cancer fighter, they're excited at the possibility. The researchers are even testing if the addition of quercetin, the antioxidant found in apples and onions, would boost the polyphenols' anti-cancer properties even more. We can drink a cup of tea to that.

A cup of tea could hold the key to cancer cure, new study reveals

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A compound in Green Tea kills oral cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unaffected

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A compound in the herbal drink kills oral cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unaffected.

Researchers say the breakthrough could lead to a new range of drugs to tackle the disease without the gruelling side effects found in chemotherapy.

You don't see these sorts of side effects with green tea consumption

Professor Joshua Lambert

The compound &ndash dubbed epigallocatechin-3-gallate or EGCG &ndash damages the resistant membrane that protects the cancerous cells.

Food scientists from Penn State University, Pennsylvania in the United States made the discovery using green-tea chewing gum.

Study leader Professor Joshua Lambert explained: "The problem with a lot of chemotherapy drugs, especially early chemotherapy drugs, is that they really just target rapidly dividing cells, so cancer divides rapidly, but so do cells in your hair follicles and cells in your intestines, so you have a lot of side effects.

"But you don't see these sorts of side effects with green tea consumption."

Top 10 Facts About Tea

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Green tea contains the protein Sirtuin 3, which damages the membranes protecting the cancerous cells leaving the cell defenceless.

"EGCG is doing something to damage the mitochondria and that mitochondrial damage sets up a cycle causing more damage and it spirals out, until the cell undergoes programmed cell death," Prof Lambert added.

The findings from Penn State University were published online by the journal Molecular Nutrition and Food Research.

Remarkably, the deadly affects of the green tea compounds in cancerous cells were not observed in healthy cells.

The research team exposed the cancerous cells to the same concentrations of Sirtuin 3 as are found in green-tea chewing gum.

Prof. Lambert said the next stage would be to study the process in animals and then proceed on to human trials.

If the latter prove successful, EGCG could kick-start the development of new cancer treatments.

Study reveals green tea compound aids tumour-suppressing, DNA-repairing protein

New York [US], February 13 (ANI): An antioxidant found in green tea may increase levels of p53, a natural anti-cancer protein, known as the 'guardian of the genome' for its ability to repair DNA damage or destroy cancerous cells.
Published in Nature Communications, a study of the direct interaction between p53 and the green tea compound, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), points to a new target for cancer drug discovery.
"Both p53 and EGCG molecules are extremely interesting. Mutations in p53 are found in over 50% of human cancer, while EGCG is the major antioxidant in green tea, a popular beverage worldwide," said Chunyu Wang, corresponding author and a professor of biological sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
"Now we find that there is a previously unknown, direct interaction between the two, which points to a new path for developing anti-cancer drugs. Our work helps to explain how EGCG is able to boost p53's anti-cancer activity, opening the door to developing drugs with EGCG-like compounds," added Wang.
Wang, a member of the Rensselaer Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, is an expert in using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study specific mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease and cancer, including p53, which he described as "arguably the most important protein in human cancer."
P53 has several well-known anti-cancer functions, including halting cell growth to allow for DNA repair, activating DNA repair, and initiating programmed cell death -- called apoptosis -- if DNA damage cannot be repaired. One end of the protein, known as the N-terminal domain, has a flexible shape, and therefore, can potentially serve several functions depending on its interaction with multiple molecules.

Potential Health Benefits of Chai Tea

Depending on which spices are used and how it’s brewed, chai tea can provide a variety of noteworthy health benefits. It's often low in calories, making it a healthy substitute for sugary beverages such as hot cocoa or apple cider.

Other potential benefits include:

Lower blood pressure. The cinnamon in chai tea may prevent hypertension, especially in people with diabetes. Research also indicates that people who drink several cups of black tea every day lower their blood pressure by several points.

Better brain power. The black tea and spices found in chai can provide significant benefits to both short-term and long-term cognitive function. Research reveals that the mere smell of cinnamon can improve both attention and memory. Black tea contains caffeine and the amino acid L-theanine, both of which are linked to improved focus.

Lower blood sugar. Black tea helps to regulate glucose levels and may prevent sudden spikes in blood sugar. It is especially valuable for controlling glucose levels after drinking sugary beverages.


Functional Uses

Ginger is recommended to individuals for regular consumption and use to support the healthy detoxification of the liver and aid in digestive function. It can be ground onto salads, meats or stews, juiced in green juice or smoothies, and brewed in hot teas. Powdered, dry ginger also can be found, and although it is pungent in taste, using it mildly will provide you will the superfood health benefits.

Ginger stimulates digestive secretions such as bile from the gall bladder and liver as well as hydrochloric acid from the stomach. For this reason, it is a useful ingredient to add to your largest meal of the day. You can find pickled ginger in prepackaged sushi packs from grocery stores.

Study reveals green tea compound aids tumour-suppressing, DNA-repairing protein

New York [US], February 13 (ANI): An antioxidant found in green tea may increase levels of p53, a natural anti-cancer protein, known as the 'guardian of the genome' for its ability to repair DNA damage or destroy cancerous cells.

Published in Nature Communications, a study of the direct interaction between p53 and the green tea compound, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), points to a new target for cancer drug discovery.

"Both p53 and EGCG molecules are extremely interesting. Mutations in p53 are found in over 50% of human cancer, while EGCG is the major antioxidant in green tea, a popular beverage worldwide," said Chunyu Wang, corresponding author and a professor of biological sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

"Now we find that there is a previously unknown, direct interaction between the two, which points to a new path for developing anti-cancer drugs. Our work helps to explain how EGCG is able to boost p53's anti-cancer activity, opening the door to developing drugs with EGCG-like compounds," added Wang.

Wang, a member of the Rensselaer Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, is an expert in using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study specific mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease and cancer, including p53, which he described as "arguably the most important protein in human cancer."

P53 has several well-known anti-cancer functions, including halting cell growth to allow for DNA repair, activating DNA repair, and initiating programmed cell death -- called apoptosis -- if DNA damage cannot be repaired. One end of the protein, known as the N-terminal domain, has a flexible shape, and therefore, can potentially serve several functions depending on its interaction with multiple molecules.

EGCG is a natural antioxidant, which means it helps to undo the near constant damage caused by using oxygen metabolism. Found in abundance in green tea, EGCG is also packaged as an herbal supplement.

Wang's team found that the interaction between EGCG and p53 preserves the protein from degradation. Typically, after being produced within the body, p53 is quickly degraded when the N-terminal domain interacts with a protein called MDM2. This regular cycle of production and degradation holds p53 levels at a low constant.

"Both EGCG and MDM2 bind at the same place on p53, the N-terminal domain, so EGCG competes with MDM2," said Wang. "When EGCG binds with p53, the protein is not being degraded through MDM2, so the level of p53 will increase with the direct interaction with EGCG, and that means there is more p53 for anti-cancer function. This is a very important interaction."

"By developing an understanding of the molecular-level mechanisms that control key biochemical interactions linked to devastating illnesses such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease, Chunyu's research is laying the groundwork for new and successful therapies," said Curt Breneman, dean of the Rensselaer School of Science.

"EGCG Binds Intrinsically Disordered N-Terminal Domain of p53 and Disrupts p53-MDM2 Interaction" was published with support from multiple grants from the National Institutes of Health. At Rensselaer, Wang was joined in the research by Lauren Gandy, Weihua Jin, Lufeng Yan, Xinyue Liu, and Yuanyuan Xiao.

First author Jing Zhao is a former member of Wang's lab, now on the faculty at China Agricultural University in Beijing, China. Co-first author Alan Blaney is an M.D.-Ph.D. student at Upstate Medical University.

Researchers also contributed from SUNY Upstate Medical Center the University of Massachusetts, Amherst New York University the State University of New York at Binghamton NYU Shanghai and Merck Research Laboratories. (ANI)

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A leading cancer specialist, David Agus, oncologist and professor of medicine at the University of Southern California, urges us to wear comfortable footwear.

We need to be “comfortably cushioned” all day long, even at dress-up occasions.

“We would all do well to choose a shoe that is flexible, light-weight and well supported,” he writes.

Why is a doctor who treats cancer patients making such a suggestion?

Two buzzwords today are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. There’s a good reason for that. Both free radical generation and inflammatory processes within the body are connected to almost every chronic condition.

You can mop up free radicals (oxidants) and combat inflammation with good diet, lifestyle and supplement choices. These are vital if you want to reduce the risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, heart disease, diabetes and arthritis.

When you combat excess oxidation (oxidative stress) from free radicals, you also fight inflammation and vice versa. Both are intimately connected.

The danger of low-grade inflammation

While inflammation is a normal and necessary process, chronic low-grade inflammation is not. It’s a sign that something is wrong. It’s being stimulated somewhere in the body by a disease-causing microbe, an irritant or by damaged cells. To protect itself and remove the stimulus, the immune system triggers an ongoing, damaging, inflammatory response.

Sorry to say, this type of inflammation can be going on in the body without us feeling it or knowing about it, which makes it especially hazardous.

Since DNA repair is known to require large amounts of energy, scientists have suggested that the body will shelve this activity to handle the inflammation. Dealing with a short-term trauma is one thing, but in a chronic situation – constant inflammation — the body could become vulnerable to cancer.

Which brings us back to Dr. Agus.

The cancer doctor’s offbeat recommendation makes a serious point. Wearing uncomfortable or ill-fitting shoes can cause constant irritation. Considering that four out of five adults are believed to have some kind of foot problem, finding comfortable shoes to avoid this concern is not easy.

Although he particularly had women’s stilettos in mind, the recommendation also applies to men’s high platform shoes and anyone wearing uncomfortable shoes of any kind.

Such footwear can cause inflammation in the toes, balls of the feet, or heels. The impact can travel up the leg to cause problems in the ankles, knees, and lower back muscles.

Heels over three inches do more damage by tilting the body forward. Leaning back to compensate can put the pelvis out of alignment and compress the spine. These effects will have implications for the whole body.

Dr. Agus describes cancer as a sleeping giant lying dormant in all of us. Why weaken our defense mechanisms and hinder our own internal cancer-fighting abilities by causing unnecessary problems?

The damage caused by footwear is no laughing matter. Sick leave in the UK caused by conditions created by ill-fitting shoes is believed to cost business £260 million pounds ($340m) annually. In the United States the figure likely exceeds a billion dollars. The truth is, nobody knows the medical costs, but they could be huge.

Inflammation causes cancer

There is no question that inflammation causes cancer.

Irritants such as smoking, acid reflux, or stone formation cause inflammation-induced lung, esophageal and kidney cancer respectively. Inflammation caused by bacteria or viruses can lead to cancers of the stomach, bladder, liver, cervix and lymph. Inflammation within the intestines can lead to colon cancer.

Obesity and repeated blows to the body also cause inflammation. So it’s no surprise that National Football League players, whose average weight is 248 pounds, have a shorter life expectancy. Overweight players are twice as likely to die of degenerative conditions before the age of 50.

Some people diagnosed with cancer are able to see a plausible link between the cancer and an old injury to the same body part that occurred years ago. For instance, one person with a bone tumor in his left femur cast his mind back nearly 40 years. He had suffered a bad accident as a young child that damaged the same leg. This is unlikely to be just a coincidence.

It’s the reason why boys with an undescended testicle during the first years of life have a 40-fold increased risk of testicular cancer as an adult.

Take aspirin?

So how can we lower our risk of chronic inflammation?

Professor Peter Elwood of Cardiff University, Wales, believes everyone over 50 should consider taking one tiny 75 mg tablet of aspirin each day because of the medicine’s powerful anti-inflammatory and health-protecting properties.

I’m not enthusiastic about this idea. Long-term aspirin use has extremely dangerous side effects. But consider the benefits of taking this anti-inflammatory.

Two studies published in the Lancet in 2011 and 2012 support Dr. Elwood’s view. After five years of daily intake, death from gastrointestinal cancers fell by 54%. After 20 years, prostate cancer deaths decreased by 10%, lung cancers in non-smokers by 30%, colorectal cancer by 40% and esophageal cancer by 60%.

Older people benefited more than younger, with the ideal candidates being in their late 40s.

The reason professor Elwood’s advice is not standard is that aspirin can cause stomach bleeding and ulcers. Each year, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause 107,000 hospitalizations and 16,500 deaths in American arthritis patients alone.

Of course they are taking much larger doses than 75 mg, but why take the risk?

Peter Sever, Professor of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics at Imperial College London, believes the risks of taking a daily aspirin outweigh its benefits, even for people at moderately increased risk of heart disease. He does not, and would not take it himself.

Natural remedies to the rescue

We can safely leave aspirin on the pharmacy shelves because there are many natural remedies that can fight inflammation and oxidation. The top seven supplements are the following, according to medical researcher and epidemiologist Vijaya Nair, M.D.:

Cultured soy. Steeping soybeans in microbial cultures transforms an undesirable and unhealthy product (the kind most Americans eat) into a fabulously digestible and nutritious food that’s popular in Asia. Examples are natto, miso, shoyo and tempeh.

Its two most powerful anti-cancer constituents are genistein and daidzein. However cultured soy contains numerous other cancer-fighting constituents that work synergistically.

Curcumin. Derived from the spice, turmeric, it’s a powerful natural anti-inflammatory and interferes with multiple cell-signaling pathways that cancers use to survive, grow and spread. It’s been reported effective against many forms of cancer.

Resveratrol. Best known for its effects on the heart, lab research shows this powerful antioxidant can prevent and kill many different types of tumor.

Ginger. This spice contains many antioxidants and fights pathogens. It also has strong anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to induce cancer cells to commit suicide.

Lutein. This carotenoid is best known for its eye benefits but also aids in the repair and prevention of DNA damage. Lutein also inhibits angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels to feed cancer) and encourages tumors to self-destruct.

Ashwaghanda. Popular in traditional Indian medicine, this herb inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. In the lab it’s shown powerful effects against breast, lung, colon, stomach and skin cancer.

Green tea. Benefits of this tea come from its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties. According to Vijaya Nair, “Study after study reveals green tea is a modern panacea that may protect against debilitating diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, heart disease and cancer.”

My own list of natural anti-inflammatories would also include proteolytic enzymes, fish oil, boswellia and silybin (available in an excellent supplement from our sister company, Green Valley Natural Solutions), and black seed or black cumin oil.

Keep moving

Researchers from University College London reported that people who spend more than four hours a day sitting in front of a TV or computer had twice the blood levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, compared to those that spend less than two hours.

Keeping your body physically active creates lots of anti-inflammatory action. So make sure you get away from the screen now and again and move your body.

Green Tea Benefits: New Research And Well-Known Reasons To Sip Now

If you aren't drinking green tea yet, this is your year to start.

New studies have revealed more reasons why green tea is such a "hot" item. It has long been praised for its antioxidant power, which can prevent the damage of our cells. And with its established cancer-fighting, happiness-boosting and brain-saving abilities, the benefits of green tea are numerous and compelling, with this ancient drink now being shown to help protect DNA, your teeth, and maybe even your body after a workout.

There are many ways to enjoy this powerful drink, whether you have it as a matcha green tea latte, mixed with flavours like pomegranate or blueberry, or as the classic loose-leaf version. Steeped green tea at a warm (not boiling) temperature gives our body the potent flavonoids that provide many of the benefits listed here, says Ara Wiseman, an expert nutritionist and author who specializes in disease prevention. Research says by having an average of two to three cups a day, you can reap the rewards of this delicious drink.

So sit back, grab a cup and learn more about reasons to make green tea part of your daily routine.

The Truth About the Health Benefits of Tea

Does it really fight cancer? Lower cholesterol? We filter the research to find out which health claims actually hold water.

Blue Jean Images/Corbis The way scientific studies and health gurus alike have touted the perks of tea over the past few years, you&aposd think the stuff was some kind of all-powerful magical elixir. Improving heart health, reducing cancer risk, warding off dementia and diabetes—there&aposs barely a health benefit that hasn&apost been credited to tea. It&aposs true that the brew has disease-fighting antioxidants, and, as far as anyone can tell, should be great for us. "The science is certainly promising," says David L. Katz, MD, director of Yale University&aposs Prevention Research Center. "But the hype goes beyond it and tends to make promises which the science can&apost yet deliver." (No, tea probably will not cure depression, eliminate allergies, or boost your fertility!) We talked to the experts and weighed the studies to separate the truth from the hype.

Why tea is so hot
First, a definition: When scientists talk about tea, they mean black, green, white, or oolong teas𠅊ll of which are made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. Herbal brews, like chamomile and peppermint, are not technically considered tea they&aposre infusions of other plants with different nutritional characteristics. If you&aposre not sure what kind you&aposre drinking, check the ingredients for the word "tea."

What makes the four tea types different from each other is the way the leaves are prepared and how mature they are, which affects both flavor and nutritional content. Black tea is made from leaves that have been wilted (dried out) and then fully oxidized (meaning that chemicals in the leaves are modified through exposure to air). Green tea&aposs leaves are wilted but not oxidized. Oolong tea is wilted and then only partially oxidized, and white tea is not wilted or oxidized at all.

All four types are high in polyphenols, a type of antioxidant that seems to protect cells from the DNA damage that can cause cancer and other diseases. It&aposs the polyphenols that have made tea the star of so many studies, as researchers try to figure out whether all that chemical potential translates into real disease-fighting punch. Most research has focused on black tea, which is what about 75% of the world drinks, and green tea, the most commonly consumed variety in China and Japan. Green tea contains an especially high amount of antioxidants—in particular, a type of polyphenol called a catechin, the most active and abundant of which is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). That&aposs why there are five times more studies on green than black tea each year𠅊nd likely why you&aposre always hearing about the power of the green stuff, says Diane L. McKay, PhD, assistant professor of nutrition at the Tufts University Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy.

Next Page: What&aposs tea good for? [ pagebreak ]
Boiling down the hype

Luzia Ellert/Getty ImagesThe most promising claims about tea drinking include these perks:

Cancer prevention: A 2009 review of 51 green tea studies found that sipping three to five cups a day may lower the risks of ovarian, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers, but not breast or other cancers, says lead author Katja Boehm, research fellow at the Center of Integrative Medicine at the University of Witten/Herdecke in Germany. As for black tea, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) deems it "possibly effective" for reducing the risk of ovarian cancer, and "possibly ineffective" for lowering the risk of stomach and colorectal cancers.

Brain benefits: Downing from one to four cups of black or green tea a day has been linked with a lower risk of Parkinson&aposs disease, according to the NIH.

Heart help: "Drinking tea may be helpful in preventing or delaying certain risk factors of cardiovascular disease, and lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglycerides," says McKay. One Japanese study found that adults who drank five or more cups of green tea per day had a 26% reduction in death from heart attack or stroke compared with those who had one cup or less the effect was greater in women than in men.

More research needs to be done on other potential benefits. One small study suggested that the catechins and caffeine in green tea may give dieters a small metabolic boost that could amount to burning a few dozen extra calories per day. There&aposs also a slim file on how drinking tea may help ward off osteoporosis and reduce the incidence of cavities, due to the fluoride it contains. And EGCG, that green-tea antioxidant, has been found to increase the number of important immune-boosting cells (called regulatory T-cells)𠅋ut only in one animal study.

Smart sips
All this sounds pretty compelling. So why aren&apost major health organizations advising us to drink tea like crazy? It&aposs a matter of needing more hard-core evidence. "There are pearls of real promise here, but they have yet to be strung," Dr. Katz says. "We don&aposhave clinical trials in human patients showing that adding tea to one&aposs routine changes health outcomes for the better." The vast majority of the research conducted has been observational, meaning scientists can&apost know if the medical boosts seen in tea drinkers are definitely a result of that habit, or some other factor that makes these people healthier. And many of the studies that have looked at specific compounds in tea have been conducted in labs or on animals, not on people. "These chemicals act as antioxidants in a test tube, but they may not do the same in your body," explains Emily Ho, PhD, associate professor in the department of nutrition and exercise science at the School of Biological and Population Health Sciences at Oregon State University. "You have to take the claims with a grain of salt."

That said, experts agree that a daily cuppa, or five, won&apost hurt you, and may well help fight disease. (If you&aposre trying to limit your caffeine intake, go for decaf—it has antioxidants too, though fewer than the caffeinated kind.) "Tea is probably better than a lot of other beverages," says Lona Sandon, RD, assistant professor in the department of clinical nutrition at UT South-western Medical Center and a spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association. "Just make sure you&aposve got other healthy lifestyle habits—you can&apost count on tea alone to prevent cancer."

Cancer-Preventive Potential Of White Tea

SAN FRANCISCO, March 29 &mdash Known mostly to tea connoisseurs, white tea may have the strongest potential of all teas for fighting cancer, according to Oregon State University researchers. They will present their research today &mdash the first on white tea &mdash at the 219th national meeting of the American Chemical Society, the world&rsquos largest scientific society.

Among the rarest and most expensive varieties of tea, white tea is produced almost exclusively in China. It belongs to the same species (Camellia sinensis) as other tea plants, but has a higher proportion of buds to leaves. The buds are covered by silvery hairs, giving the plant a whitish appearance.

Some teas are processed more than others. White tea is rapidly steamed and dried, leaving the leaves virtually &ldquofresh.&rdquo Green tea, composed of mainly leaves, is steamed or fired prior to being rolled. Oolong and black teas get their dark color and flavor from additional processing.

The researchers theorize that processing may play a part in tea&rsquos cancer-fighting potential. The key is a class of chemicals called polyphenols.

&ldquoMany of the more potent tea polyphenols (&lsquocatechins&rsquo) become oxidized or destroyed as green tea is further processed into oolong and black teas,&rdquo says Roderick H. Dashwood, Ph.D., a biochemist in the university&rsquos Linus Pauling Institute and principal investigator of the study. &ldquoOur theory was that white tea might have equivalent or higher levels of these polyphenols than green tea, and thus be more beneficial.&rdquo

Chemical analysis confirmed their theory. White tea contains the same types of polyphenols as green tea, but in different proportions. Those present in greater amounts may be responsible for white tea&rsquos enhanced cancer-fighting potential, says Dashwood.

Encouraged by reports of cancer-fighting chemicals in green tea, the researchers decided to test white tea to determine whether it has similar qualities. They brewed four varieties of white tea and subjected each to a laboratory test using bacteria. The test, called the Salmonella assay, determines whether a chemical can cause or prevent DNA mutations, the earliest steps leading to cancer.

White tea inhibited mutations more efficiently than green tea. This means it may have more potential to prevent cancer than green tea, says Gilberto Santana-Rios, Ph.D., a post-doctoral research associate with the institute, located in Corvallis, Ore.

The researchers, now performing experiments in rats, report that their latest data indicate that white tea may protect against colon cancer in particular. They attribute this to elevated levels of particular liver enzymes.

The researchers say more studies are needed to determine whether white tea actually protects people against cancer.

&ldquoWhite tea, and tea in general, is a healthy alternative to other popular drinks, such as sodas,&rdquo says Dashwood. &ldquoBut to be on the safe side, one should maintain a healthy lifestyle that includes a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, regular exercise, and avoidance of smoking.&rdquo

Dr. Dashwood is Associate Professor in the Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology at Oregon State University. He also is Principal Investigator with the university&rsquos Linus Pauling Institute.

Dr. Santana-Rios is a post-doctoral Research Associate with the Linus Pauling Institute.

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Materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.